典型法律禁令句型翻译之三 “处”字句

用“处”字句表示禁止性规范有以下两个特点:其一,在语义上,与“不得”字句不同的是,它用具体的制裁来表示禁令。其二,在结构上,主语往往为“的”字结构,突出犯罪主体或犯罪行为,简介庄重;谓语部分的“处”字突出对犯罪主体或犯罪行为的处置。

“处”字句一般为被动句,为使行为简洁,实施(司法机关)一般不出现。有时为了使语义明确,实施(司法机关)也可以出现,通常译为be sentenced to句式。请看下例:

策动、勾引、收买国家工作人员、武装部队、人民警察、民兵投敌叛变或者叛乱的,无期徒刑或者十年以上有期徒刑。刑法第九十三条

参考译文:Whoever instigates lures or bribes a state functionary or a member of the armed forces, the people’s police or the people’s militia to defect to the enemy and turn traitor or to rise in rebellion shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years. legaltranz.com

典型法律禁令句型翻译之四 “是”字句

“是”字句规定什么行为是犯罪,语气坚决,表达禁止性规范庄重简练。与“处”字句不同的是,它不表述具体的处罚。常译为refer to,用来解释说明。请看下例:

例1:明知自己的行为会发生危害社会的后果,并且希望或者放任这种结果发生,因而构成犯罪的,故意犯罪。(刑法第十四条)

参考译文:An intentional crime refers to a crime committed by a person who clearly knows that his act will produce socially dangerous consequences but who wishes or allows such consequences to occur.

例2:组织、领导犯罪集团进行犯罪活动的或者在共同犯罪中起主要作用的,主犯。对于主犯,除本法分则已有规定的以外,应当从重处罚。(刑法第二十三条)

参考译文:A principal criminal refers to any person who organizes and leads a criminal group in carrying out criminal activities or plays a principal role in a joint crime. A principal criminal shall be given a heavier punishment unless otherwise provided for in the specific provisions of this Law. Legaltranz.com

例3:剥夺政治权利剥夺下列权利:

(一)选举权和被选举权;

(二)宪法第四十五条规定的各种权利;

(三)担任国家机关职务的权利;

(四)担任企业、事业单位和人民团体领导职务的权利;

参考译文:Deprivation of political rights refers to deprivation of the following rights:

(1) the right to vote and to stand for election;

(2) the right provided for in Article 45 of the Constitution;

(3) the right to hold a position in a state organ; and

(4) the right to hold a leading position in any enterprise, institution or people’s organization.

法律法规三个主要部分的翻译技巧

“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规定与罚则”是每一部法律法规必不可少的内容,掌握了这三个部分的翻译,法律法规的翻译会变的简单、容易的多。

一、先来看“开场白”。下面便是一部典型的地方法规的卷首语:

第一条 为加强市容和环境卫生管理,创造和维护整洁、优美的市容环境,保障人民身体健康,促进经济发展和社会文明进步,根据有关法律、法规,结合本市实际情况,制定本条例。(摘自天津市市容和环境卫生管理条例)

开场白一般有四个雷打不动的组成部分。即“为了”、“根据”、“结合”、“制定”。根据英语行文特点,应该先翻“制定”,These Regulations are enacted (formulated),一般formulate用的多些,从英语词义分析,enact似乎更加准确些。有学者主张把enact与formulate一起用上。准确是准确了,但是毕竟显得有点儿累赘。下面是译文:

Article 1  These Regulations are enacted in accordance with pertinent laws and regulations and in light of the concrete conditions of this Municipality, with the purpose of strengthening the administration of cityscape and environmental sanitation, creating and maintaining a clean, beautiful cityscape and environment, protecting people’s health, promoting economic growth, civilization and progress of society.

还有三处小地方需要说明一下。

1. 条例也可以用单数。 

 

2. “条例”与“本市”大写的目的是为了醒目、突出,并与本条例中提到的另外一些条例加以区别。

3. With the purpose of 或者with the aim to 后边都应该用动词+ing的形式

在开场白中,往往还有一些关键名词的解释,实施本法的范围以及负责单位的任命等项内容。现分别说明如下:

关键名词解释:

第三条  本条例所称的劳动和社会保障(以下简称劳动保障)监察,是指劳动保障行政部门依法对用人单位和劳动者、就业服务机构、医疗服务机构遵守劳动保障法律、法规的情况进行监督检查,对违反劳动保障法律、法规的行为依法进行处理的行政执法活动。(摘自《天津市劳动和社会保障监察条例》)

  Article 3 The labour and social security (hereinafter abbreviated as labour security) supervision mentioned in this Regulation refers to the activities of the administrative department for labour security, in supervising and checking, according to law, employing units and labourers ,employment intermediary agencies, and medical facilities of their observation of the laws and regulations on labour security and, in handling, according to law, acts breaching laws and regulations on labour security.

实施本法范围:

第二条 在本市行政区域内从事建设工程的新建、扩建、改建等有关活动,以及对建设工程质量实施监督管理的,必须遵守本规定。(摘自《天津市建设工程质量管理规定》)

Article 2  These Regulations apply to the newly-built, expanded and renovated construction projects carried out in this Municipality and the quality control thereof.

负责单位:

第六条 天津经济技术开发区管理委员会(以下简称开发区管委会)是天津市人民政府(以下简称市人民政府)的派出机构,代表市人民政府对开发区实行统一管理。(摘自《天津经济技术开发区条例》)

Article 6 The Administrative Committee of the Tianjin Economic―Technological Development Area (hereinafter referred to as TEDAAC) is delegated by the Tianjin Municipal People’s Government (hereinafter referred to as the Municipal People’s Government), and shall exercise a uniform administration of TEDA on behalf of the Municipal People’s Government.

既然在中文法律文书行文中,开场白的上述内容是必不可少的,翻译起来,也有一些比较固定的译法,不妨一记。“所称”……“是指”,有几种常见的译法。

一是如上面的译文所示“mentioned……refers to ”,也可以翻译成“be referred……shall be”;

“必须遵守本规定”或者“适用本规定”,可以一律翻译成“apply to”,没不要把前者翻译成“must abide by”。。

二、再看一下“结束语”的翻译。结束语首先要说,本条例从何时起生效,有的时候还要说明以前制定的某某条例同时废止。请看上述有关市容条例的结束语以及译文:

第五十九条  本条例自公布之日起施行。1998年2月25目天津市第十二届人民代表大会常务委员会第四十次会议通过的《天津市环境卫生管理条例》同时废止。

Article .59  These Regulations shall become effective as from the date of promulgation. The Regulations of Tianjin Municipality on Environmental Sanitation that was adopted at the 40th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth Tianjin Municipal People’s Congress on February 25, 1998 shall be abrogated simultaneously. wwww.legaltranz.com

“生效”译法不一而足。经常选用的有:take effect,come into effect,become effective 等等。 如果原文是从某日起实施,要用as of 这个词组,比如从2003年12月20日起实施,要说These Regulations shall take effect as of December 20,2003,而不要说成as from December 20,2003。“同时废止”则比较简单,译成be abrogated simultaneously 即可

6 steps to write a good legal brief

A legal brief is a document used to submit an argument to a court. Briefs are generally written by lawyers and are intended to persuade the court to rule in your favor on a particular issue. Here are a few tips to help you write an effective legal brief.

Step 1

Prepare a caption. Court rules state that every pleading should contain a caption including the name of the court, the title of the action, the file number and names of the parties.

Step 2

Begin with a preliminary statement. This should identify the party submitting the brief and inform the court of the relief requested. Generally, a preliminary statement should be kept short and provide the court with enough information to understand the issues to be addressed in the brief.

Step 3

State the facts relevant to the brief. Facts should not be misrepresented, but can be presented in a way that is favorable to your argument. Be sure to cite to the record to support these facts.

Step 4

Make your argument. This is the part of the brief where you present your case. Analyze why the law supports the relief you are requesting. Apply the law to your set of facts and cite to cases that support your position. Generally, you should make your strongest arguments first, followed by secondary relevant arguments.

Step 5

Acknowledge the counter-argument. It won’t help your case to ignore any valid arguments that can be made by the other side. Address these arguments and explain to the court why your case is different. Distinguish any relevant cases that do not support your argument on their facts.

Step 6

Conclude your brief. Tell the court what relief you are seeking and ask for that relief.

Tips & Warnings

1. Try to keep your brief brief. Courts appreciate brevity and clarity.

2. Avoid legalese and incivility.

法律英语中的破折号和连字符应该在什么情况下使用?

在法律英语写作中,我们经常会遇到的破折号和连字符,应该在什么情况下使用才得当呢?

破折号 Dashes

有两种情况,我们可以使用破折号。

1. 把一个从句放在两个破折号之间。

例如:Very few – in fact almost none – of the lawyers working in this city haven’t been to legaltranz.com to study legal English.

上面例句中使用破折号可以使句子的意思清晰,而没有在此处用可能会使意思混淆的逗号。

2. 一个长的破折号可以用来作为’to’的替代。

例如:The proposed route is Helsinki — New York — Helsinki.

连字符 Hyphens

使用连字符的情况也有两种。

1. 当第一个单词是第二个单词的前缀时,用连字符把两个单词合起来。(特别是在英国英语中)

例如:Pre-trial, non-statutory. 这类词在美式英式英语中通常就是一个单词,中间没有连字符:pretrial, nonstatutory.

2. 用在由一个以上单词构成的形容词短语上。

例如:health-care provider or real estate purchase.

合同翻译经典句型荟萃 购买物资和销售产品

合同翻译是法律翻译中最为常见的,为了使合同翻译变得更加专业和高效,特将合同中不同部分的中英文翻译整理归纳,其中包含大量经典句型和常用法律英语词汇,供大家学习参考。
税收 保密 转让 董事会
所有权 保险 陈述、保证和承诺 责任、赔偿、免责
责任和义务 不可抗力和通知 可分性和放弃 定义和解释
合营企业的设立 违约和侵权 完整协议、修改和语言 适用法律和争议的解决
职工和工会组织 财务会计和利润分配 税务、外汇管理和保险 购买物资和销售产品
用地及费用 经营管理机构 期限和终止 投资总额和注册资本

甲方在此进一步保证,甲方设备状况良好,可用于生产,且在向合营公司出售之时,为甲方完全拥有,不存在使任何第三方受益的任何分期付款购买安排、租赁、抵押、质押、留置或其他负担,而且在完成向合营公司出售的交易后,将成为合营公司完全拥有的、无负担的财产。 Party A hereby further warrants that the Party A Equipment shall be in good workable condition and, at the time of sale to the JV Company, shall be wholly owned by it and shall not be subject to any hire purchase arrangement, lease, mortgage, pledge, lien or other encumbrances in favor of any third party whatsoever and shall, upon completion of the sale to the JV Company, constitute the wholly owned, unencumbered property of the JV Company.

合同翻译经典句型荟萃 可分性和放弃部分

合同翻译是法律翻译中最为常见的,为了使合同翻译变得更加专业和高效,特将合同中不同部分的中英文翻译整理归纳,其中包含大量经典句型和常用法律英语词汇,供大家学习参考。
税收 保密 转让 董事会
所有权 保险 陈述、保证和承诺 责任、赔偿、免责
责任和义务 不可抗力和通知 可分性和放弃 定义和解释
合营企业的设立 违约和侵权 完整协议、修改和语言 适用法律和争议的解决
职工和工会组织 财务会计和利润分配 税务、外汇管理和保险 购买物资和销售产品
用地及费用 经营管理机构 期限和终止 投资总额和注册资本

therefore the parties expressly agree that if either party shall at any time breach or in any way violate this Agreement, then Party A or Party B, as the case may be, shall be entitled to equitable relief by way of injunction (in addition to, and not in substitution for, any and all other relief to which such party may be entitled either at law or in equity) to restrain such breach and to compel compliance with the obligations undertaken.  因此双方明示同意,如果任何一方任何时间或以任何方式违反本协议,甲方或乙方(视情况而定)应有权通过法院下达的禁制令(对该方依据普通法或衡平法可能享有的任何和所有其他救济的补充而不是取代)限制违约行为和迫使违约方履行其承诺的义务,而享有衡平法上的救济。

合同翻译经典句型荟萃 侵权违约部分

合同翻译是法律翻译中最为常见的,为了使合同翻译变得更加专业和高效,特将合同中不同部分的中英文翻译整理归纳,其中包含大量经典句型和常用法律英语词汇,供大家学习参考。
税收 保密 转让 董事会
所有权 保险 陈述、保证和承诺 责任、赔偿、免责
责任和义务 不可抗力和通知 可分性和放弃 定义和解释
合营企业的设立 违约和侵权 完整协议、修改和语言 适用法律和争议的解决
职工和工会组织 财务会计和利润分配 税务、外汇管理和保险 购买物资和销售产品
用地及费用 经营管理机构 期限和终止 投资总额和注册资本

The Licensee shall give the Licensor in writing full particulars of any use or proposed use by any other person, firm or company of a trade name, trademark or getup of goods or means of promotion or advertising which amounts to or is likely to amount to infringement of the rights of the Licensor in relation to the Licensed Trademarks or contravention of the Antiunfair Competition Law as soon as it becomes aware of such use or proposed use. 被许可方一旦获悉任何其他人、商行或公司使用或拟使用的商品名称、商标、商品装饰、促销或广告手段相当于或可能相当于侵犯许可方对于受许可商标的权利或违反反不正当竞争法,应立即以书面形式将详细情况告知许可方。

合同翻译经典句型荟萃 转让部分

合同翻译是法律翻译中最为常见的,为了使合同翻译变得更加专业和高效,特将合同中不同部分的中英文翻译整理归纳,其中包含大量经典句型和常用法律英语词汇,供大家学习参考。
税收 保密 转让 董事会
所有权 保险 陈述、保证和承诺 责任、赔偿、免责
责任和义务 不可抗力和通知 可分性和放弃 定义和解释
合营企业的设立 违约和侵权 完整协议、修改和语言 适用法律和争议的解决
职工和工会组织 财务会计和利润分配 税务、外汇管理和保险 购买物资和销售产品
用地及费用 经营管理机构 期限和终止 投资总额和注册资本

provided that the assignee agrees in writing to be bound by all the terms and conditions of this Agreement and provides documentation as evidence that the assignee has the ability and capability of meeting all of the obligations under this Agreement. 但受让方须书面同意受本协议所有条款和条件约束,并提供文件证明受让方有资格、有能力履行本协议项下的全部义务。

法律英语词汇分类十 独特的累赘词汇

使用法律配对词(doublets/legal pairs)和三联词(triplets)指用两个或三个意思相近或相同的词构成一个短语以表达法律上本来只需要一个词就能表达的概念。

以null and void为例,事实上这两个词并不能互补,也没有任何意义上的差别;而在lands, tenements and hereditaments这个短语中,tenements在现代英语中是一个已经废弃不用的词,hereditaments指的是留给继承人的地产。在大多情况下,只用一个land就足以表达原文所要表达的法律概念。

另外,如在租赁合约中,通常都会包含这样的条款,即well and sufficiently repair, uphold, maintain the premises. 其中的well修饰repair已经sufficient(足够)。Sufficiently则是完全多余的。而另外三个同义的动词 – repari, uphold, maintain, 只要保留其中的最简单、最常用的repair就足以表达合同的一方要求另一方妥善维修房屋的意图。

在翻译中,这类词原则上都可以合二为一或合三为一来处理。当然,并非所有看似配对词和三联词都一定只有一个意义。许多看似配对词或三联词的近义词其法律上的含义在某种程度上还是有所差异的。例如,在房地产合约中常会碰到sell, transfer(转让)or dispose(处置)这一短语,其中的sell一定是指以金钱进行的房地产交易,与transfer或dispose在概念上都有实质性的差别。所以在翻译的过程中要特别小心甄别这类词。以下是最为常见的可以在翻译中作合二为一或合三为一的法律上的累赘词:

acknowledge and confess; aid and abet; aid and comfort; alter and change; authorise and empower; breaking and entering; cancel, annul and set aside; cease and desist; deem and consider; each and all; each and every; fair and equitable; false and untrue; final and conclusive; fit and proper; force and effect; forgive and pardon; fraud and deceit; free and clear; full and complete; full, true and correct; give, devise and bequeath; goods and chattels; had and received; have and hold; hold and keep; hue and cry; keep and maintain; let or hindrance; mind and memory; new and novel; null and void; remise, release and quitclaim; request and require; rest, residue and remainder; right, interest and title; save and except; seriouly and gravely; sole and exclusive; will and testament;