人 persons

The concept of artificial personality having thus been invented in Western law, it came to be applied to a variety of entities both human and non-human. 在西方国家的法律中,法人人格这一概念就这样发明出来了;于是,它逐渐被适用于许多不同的实体 – 人的实体和非人的实体。

法人 Juristic Persons

A person in law possesses certain rights and owes certain duties. 在法律上,人享有一定的权利并负担一定的义务。There are two categories of persons: natural and juristic. 人可分为两类:自然人和法人。

“不当”的含义 What is Unfair?

No general formula can tell us what conduct is morally offensive and thus unfair, for a great deal depends on the cultural traditions of the country and the current problems of commercial life; besides, views change. 没有一条通用的公式能告诉我们:什么行为是违反道德的从而也是不正当的,因为事情大部分取决于本国的文化传统和当前商业生活中的问题,何况,观点又在变化。

劳动法 Labor Law

Labor law, in its broadest sense, is the law that affects working persons by virtue of their employment relationship, a relationship that in the United States is ordinarily with a private employer. 劳动法就其最广泛的意义来说是这样一种法律:它是通过雇佣关系 – 这在美国通常是一种同私人雇主之间的关系 – 而影响劳动者的。

经济法上的制裁 Sanctions in the Economic Law

According to this statute the mandatory corporations may, in certain cases, be declared competent to impose disciplinary sanctions on non compliance with their regulations (fines and reprimands). 根据该法之规定,在某些情况下强制法人可以被宣告为有权对违反其规章的行为进行纪律制裁(罚款和训斥)。

荷兰经济法 Dutch Economic Law

In the Netherlands, as in other Western European countries, the relationships between the economy and the law have been embodied in a new branch of law: Economic Law. 在荷兰,同在其他西欧国家一样,经济与法律的关系体现在一个新的法律部门 – 经济法中了。

CIF合同 CIF Contracts

A CIF contract is an agreement to sell goods at an inclusive price, comprising the cost of the goods, the marine insurance premium for the value of the goods and the freight or the cost of transportation. CIF合同是一种以包括货物成本、货物价值的海运险保险费和水脚即运费三者在内的一揽子价格为条件而达成的商品买卖协议。