Attorney, lawyer, barrister和solicitor有什么区别

         可能没有哪个职业的抬头会像‘律师’这样分得这么细。在法律英语中,Attorney, lawyer, barrister和solicitor这几个词被使用的比较频繁,有时候它们之间甚至可以互换。不过这些词每个都有自己独特的含义。

         1. Attorney或者attorney-at-law, 中文意思是律师或者法律代理人。是指可以接受当事人的委托并有资格在法庭上代表委托人,并以委托人的名义参与案件的申辩。

         2. Lawyer, 这个词我们都是直接把它译成‘律师’,它的定义是指受过专门的法律培训,在法律事务上提供法律建议和帮助的人。因为lawyer可以在法庭审理程序中参与诉讼,并且在各个不同的审理阶段代表客户。所以lawyer一词超出且覆盖了attorney的含义。在美国,lawyer和attorney这两个词被认为是同义词。

         3.  barrister和solicitor的区别 在英国和在香港,律师的抬头就更加细分了。律师分为两种,solicitor是普通事物律师或简称为律师,其职责大体上是处理各种法律文书,接受各种诉讼委托,准备庭审所需的各种文件,其出庭的发言权是受到限制的;只有所谓的大律师或大状(barrister)才在所有法院享有不受限制的出庭发言权,可在庭上与原告律师或控方(the Prosecution/prosecutors)唇枪舌剑,展开辩护(advocacy),但他们不能直接与讼人/当事人接触。市民有意聘用大律师要先行与律师(solicitor)接触,搜集案件的证据和会晤证人等事,是由律师办理的。

Lawyer 律师 (MP3)

Lawyer 律师

1. A barrister has right of audience in any court in England and Wales.

律师有权在英格兰和威尔士的任何法院出庭。

2. A lawyer shall not represent both parties involved in the same case.

律师不得在同一案件中,为双方当事人担任代理。

3. A lawyer should assist in maintaining the integrity and competence of the legal profession.

律师应该帮助维护律师界的正直和业务能力。

4. A lawyer should assist in preventing the unauthorized practice of law.

律师应当帮助防止非法执业。

5. A lawyer should assist the legal profession in fulfilling its duty to make legal counsel available.

律师应帮助律师界履行其提供法律顾问的义务。

6. A lawyer should avoid even the appearance of professional impropriety.

律师应避免出现不正当业务现象。

7. A lawyer should exercise independent professional judgment on behalf of a client.

律师应代表当事人独立进行法律转移判断。

8. A lawyer should preserve the confidences and secrets of client.

律师应当为当事人保密。

9. A lawyer should represent a client competently.

律师应当称职的担任当事人的代理。

10. A lawyer should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law.

律师应当在法律范围内热忱的为当事人代理。

11. Can you contact the solicitors representing the vendors?

你能与代表卖方的律师联系吗?

12. Counsel is instructed to settle the defense.

律师接受指示处理辩护事项。

13. Counsel for the plaintiff opposed the defendant‘s application for an adjournment.

原告律师反对被告的休庭申请。

14. Counsel for the prosecution opened with a description of the accused’s family.

起诉方律师开始发言时对被告的家庭背景做了描述。

15. Counsel must not lead the witness.

律师不得诱导证人。

16. Counsel pleaded the accused’s age in extenuation of his actions.

律师以被告年龄为由要求减轻其行为过错。

17. Counsel prevailed upon the judge to grant an adjournment.

律师劝说法官休庭。

18. Counsel questioned the reliability of the witness evidence.

律师对证人证词的可靠性表示怀疑。

19. Counsel raised a point of law.

辩护人提出了一个法律问题

20. Counsel stated that there was no case to answers, but the judge demurred.

律师声明没有必要进行答辩,但法官表示不同意。

21. Defense counsel made a speech in mitigation.

为获判刑被告律师做了发言。

22. Defense counsel put his case.

辩护律师提出他的论点。

23. He has set up in practice as a solicitor.

他已是一个开业“初级律师”

24. He is a partner in a law firm.

他是律师事务所的合伙人。

25. He was denied the right to see his lawyer.

他被剥夺了会见律师的权利。

26. Sound legal advice depends upon the lawyer being fully informed by the client.

好的法律咨询意见取决于律师是否能从当事人处获得充分信息。

27. The accused decided to dispense with the services of a lawyer.

被告决定不要律师的服务。

28. The solicitor attempted to have the charge dropped.

初级律师试图使原告撤诉。

29. The solicitor paid the fine on behalf of his client.

初级律师代表诉讼委托人支付了罚款。

30. The solicitor sent an extract of the deeds.

初级律师寄出一份契据的摘录本。

法律英语听力MP3合集

Insurance 保险 Real property 不动产
Process 传票 Judge 法官
Law 法律 Court 法庭
Citizens’ right 公民权利 Company law 公司法
International law 国际法 Negligence 过失行为
Partnership 合伙 Contract and agreement 合同和协议
Environment protection 环境保护 Marriage and family life 婚姻和家庭
Prosecutor 检察官 Traffic 交通
Encumbrance 财产负担 Police 警察
Jurisprudence 法理 Lawyer 律师
Offense 犯罪 Instrument 票据
Jurisdiction 管辖权 Appeal 上诉
Customs and tariff 海关和关税 Death penalty 死刑
Settlement 和解 Costs 诉讼费
Shipping and maritime law 货运和海商法 Juvenile delinquency 未成年人违法
Loan and lease 借贷和租赁 Punishment 刑罚
Legislation 立法 Remedy 救济
Jury 陪审团 Contempt of court 藐视法庭
Tort 侵权 Bankruptcy 破产
Trial 审判 Tax 税收
Pleading 诉辩状 Litigation 诉讼
ownership 所有权 Agency 委托代理
Consumer’s right 消费者权益 Trust 信托
Criminal law principles 刑法原则 Criminal investigation 刑事侦察
Medical care 医疗保健 Duty 责任
Transaction 业务交易 Bidding 招投标
Plaintiff and Defendant 原告和被告 Intellectual property 知识产权
Debt 债务 Will and Succession 遗嘱和继承
Securities 证券 Gift 赠与
Arbitration 仲裁 Evidence 证据

Law, Lawyer and Law Firm的准确用法

稍微细心的朋友也许可以发现,在Law, Lawyer和Law Firm这三个词上,总是闹出一些让人哭笑不得的笑话。这三个词的意思其实很清晰,但对于英语基础不是特别扎实的朋友,还是要多注意它们之间的区别。

 

一、Law – 法律的统称

以前可以看到很多律师或律所把“law”这个词当作“律师”使用,如在他们的名片背面,中文“经济律师”对应的是英文单词组合“ECONOMIC LAW”; 通常“law”没有律师的含意,在用法上也不能作为“律师”一词来这样使用。只有在某种特定的情形下,才有律师的意思潜在其中,如“practise the law”–执行法律事务,其中含有“律师”的意思。因为律师,尤其在英美法律国家,检察官、律师本身均可称为律师,也是执行法律事务的。

二、Lawyer – 律师

通常大家都认为“律师”对应的英文单词是“lawyer”,这没有错。但它的使用是有区分的,并且不能使用“law”来替代。 Lawyer也是attorney, solicitor, barrister, counselor ( or counselor), advocate等的通称。

Attorney n 代理人、(小)律师、讼师、辩护士。用法:an attorney represents his client–律师代表当事人 美式英语用法。早期在英国-检察总长;在美国-司法部长。

Solicitor 英国-初级律师 美国-法务官

Barrister 英国-大律师、辩护士

Counsellor ( or counselor) 英国-大律师、辩护士 私人顾问、爱尔兰、美国-辩护士

Advocate 辩护士、代言人、拥护者、提倡者 用法:advocate revolution–鼓吹革命

The Bar  

1)、(法庭中的)围栏、

2)、律师职、律师界

用法:bar 一词本身没有律师的意思,只有加定冠词并大写时才有上述两层含意。 如,be called to the Bar–取得律师资格、做律师

三、Law Firm – 律师事务所

在2000年以前,在不少地方的律师事务所的名片上都可以看到“*** lawyer’s office”,这种用法在英文中根本没有,它让人感受的意思,是律师办公地点,即我们称的“律师楼”。 而现在内地律师事务所的英文所名均采用“***law firm”,这才是正确用法。

但值得注意的是,这种情形的律师事务所规模较大,含有“集团”的意思在其中。而内地有不少律师事务所只有3-5人,用此名称与实不符。还有就是,司法行政机关设立的乡镇法律服务所不能使用“law firm”。

这些最普通的表达可以反映出我国司法从业人员的素质。当然随着时代的迈进,这种错误出现的几率比起以前要少很多了。

lawyer是‘律师’最好的翻译吗?

随着经济的发展,接触涉外案件的机会也越来越多。中国的律师喜欢用‘lawyer’来介绍自己。甚至有人认为用以表示“律师”的英文单词,非lawyer莫属。其实,与“律师”相对应的单词有很多,那哪一种翻译最贴切呢?现在就让我们一起来了解一下吧!

 

Advocate是指学习法律、依法获准执业、为当事人提供法律意见,并有资格出庭参加案件公开审理的律师,即辩护律师(在英美不常用);又指法国、英格兰等地律师、法律顾问。Advocate是法国律师统称。

Agent ad litem诉讼代理人,常用于书面用语。

Attorney一词广泛用于美国,指授权为当事人代理案件的律师;英格兰法律中,attorney一词指Westminster地区普通法高等法庭的公共官员(public officer)。

Attorney at law一词经常与attorney一词互用,用法同attorney-at-law。

Attorney in fact指法庭外接受委托的律师,也称为lawyer in fact。

Bar是律师的全称概念,与法官对应。各地律师协会一般用bar association表达。

Barrister一词源自英格兰法律,多用于英国、新加坡等国和香港地区,又称大律师、辩护律师,指有资格出席高等法院法庭的律师。类似称呼还有barrister, counsel和barrister-at-law。与之相对应的是solicitor。

Barrister in chambers指出庭律师工作室。英国的出庭律师不准合伙开业,所以他们通常数人共同租一个工作室(chamber),提供法律服务。通常一个工作室有15个出庭律师。

Benngoshi日本人对律师的称呼,也称为“辩护士”。

Counsel指接受指派,专门为个人、公司和政府公务部门提供法律服务的人,称为法律顾问。美国宪法第6、第14修正案和联邦法庭规则中均有the right to counsel的规定,即刑事被告有权因经济困难而要求法庭为其指派辩护律师。可见counsel也有律师之意。

Counsel pro hoc vice指仅仅代理某案件的律师。

Counselor经常与counsel或counselor at law互用,多指从事出庭诉讼的律师。

Counselor-at-law又拼为counselor at law用法同counselor和counselor at law。

Defense counsel指辩护律师。主要用于美国,是对律师的尊称,多以缩写形式出现,加在律师姓名之后,如John Smith Esq., Yajun Ge Esq.。

Family lawyer理解为家庭律师,有点私人律师的意思。

Gentleman of the (long) robe是对律师的比喻性称谓,不直接修饰某律师。

Government lawyer指政府律师。

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多种多样的律师称谓

关于律师的称谓可谓多种多样,在此对各词的内涵与区别做一简单介绍。

Solicitor与barrister是英国对律师的分类,solicitor译为“事物律师”,其与客户直接打交道,barrister译为“出庭律师”。(详见barrister和solicitor区别

Associate一词在美国指“受雇律师”,即受律师事务所雇用的、非合伙人的律师。

Attorney一词在英国现已罕用,在美国,该词在一般意义上既指律师,与attorney at law或counselor at law同义。

Counsel一词有律师之意,指代表当事人参与诉讼或者代表或协助客户处理有关法律事物(如参与谈判、起草文件等)的律师。在英国指的是出庭律师(barrister).