Agreement和Contract可否互换?

在法律英语中,经常接触到contract和agreement这两个词,它们都有“合同、合约和协议”的意思,那在翻译的时候,它们是否可以互相取代呢?

我们先来看一下它们的定义,

何谓”contract”?

   1999年中国《合同法》第二条对contract定义为: A contact in this Law refers to an agreement establishing, modifying and terminating the civil rights and obligations between subjects of equal footing, that is, between natural persons, legal persons or other organizations”.根据这一定义,合同是平等主体之间设立的确定民事权利和义务的协议。

Steven H.Gifts编著的”Law Dictionary”中将contract 定义为”contract is a promise, or a set of promises, for breach of which the law gives remedy, or the performance of the which the law in some way recognize as a duty.”根据这一定义,合同是一种承诺,违反承诺可以得到法律救助,某种意义上法律将 履行该承诺看做是一种补偿。

  L.B Curzon 在其编撰的字典”A Dictionary of Law”给contract的定义:”Contract is a legally binding agreement”根据这一定义,合同就是有法 律约束力的协议。

  综合起来,有一个相同点,就是”Contract is an agreement”,即可将合同说成是”An agreement which binds the parties concerned”或者说合同说成是”An agreement which is enforceable by law”,也可以说:Contracts are promises that the law will enforce.

 

何谓”Agreement”?

  L.B “A consensus of mind, or evidence of such consensus, in spoke or written form, relating to anything done or to be done.”根据这一定义,协议是对已经做或准备做的相关事宜,经过谈判、协商后取得一致意见,以口头或书面形式做出的约定。

   Black “Law Dictionary”有两个定义。一个是:”A concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performance”根据这一定义,协议即双方或多方京某些过去或将来某些事实的相关权利、义务或相关权利、义务的履行而达成的一致理解和愿望。

   另一个是:”The consent of two or more persons concurring respecting the transmission of some property, right or benefits, with the view of contacting an obligation, a mutual obligation.”根据这一定义,协议即两个或多个当事人,为了约定单方责任或相互责任,就财产权利、利益的转移取得的一致同意。

Contract和Agreement的组成条件

Contract:

  合同的成立必须具备几个主要因素。它们(要约和承诺构成的)协议、约因、设立法律关系的愿望和缔约能力四大部分组成。

  L.B Curzon编著的”A Diction of Law”提到:”Contract generally involves”:

  1.offer and absolute and unqualified acceptance (要约和绝对接受);

  2.consensus ad idem (意思表示一致,也叫meeting of minds);

   3.intention to create legal relations(建立合同关系的意愿);

  4.genuineness of consent(同意的真实性);

  5.contractual capacity of the parties(合同当事人的缔约能力);

  6.legality of object(标的物的合法性);

   7.possibility of performance(履行的可能性);

  8.certainty of terms(条款的确定性);

  9.valuable consideration(等价有偿)。

  

Agreement:

Black ‘Law Dictionary” 中解释道:Although often used as synonyms with “contract”, agreement is a broader term, e.g.an agreement might lack an essential element of a contact.”即”协议”和”合同”经常用作同义词,但”协议”这一术语含义更广,例如协议可能缺乏合同的必备条款(essential clauses/provisions)。

  实际使用当中,协议可不受必备条款的限制,而称为合同的文体肯定少不了必备条款,有的合同将其单列,称为一般条款(General provisions)。

  1999中国《合同法》第十二条规定了八项一般条款,分别是:

   1.title or name and domicile of the parities(当事人的名称或姓名和住址);

   2.contract object(标的);

  3.quantity(数量);

  4.quality(质量);

   5.price or remuneration(价款或者报酬);

  6.time limit, place and method of performance (履行期限、地点和方式);

  7.liability for breach of contract(违约责任);

  8.methods to settle disputes (解决争议的方法)。

  

        上述解释说明,contract(合同)和agreement(协议)的概念虽然接近,但使用范围不同,不能互换使用。合同是协议的重要组成部分,所有合同一定是协议,而协议不见得都是合同。可以说具备合同成立要求的具有强制执行力的协议才是合同

Contract and agreement 合同和协议 (MP3)

Contract and agreement 合同和协议

1. A contract cannot arise out of an illegal act.

违法行为不能构成合约。

2. A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.

承诺生效即合同成立。

3. A contract may be modified if the parties reach a consensus through consultation.

当事人协商一致即可以变更合同。

4. A person is not liable for debts contracted during his minority.

一个人无须对他在未成年时期的合同债务承担责任。

5. A transaction between two parties ought not to operate to the disadvantage of a third.

合约不约束第三人。

6. An acceptance once given cannot be revoked unless the offeror consents.

除非要约人同意,承诺一经做出即不得撤销。

7. An acceptance is a statement made by the offeree indicating assent to an offer.

承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。

8. An offeror may withdraw an offer at any time before it has been accepted.

在要约被受要约人接受以前,要约人可以随时撤回要约。

9. Any amendment to this contract shall become effective only by a written agreement by Patry A and Party B.

对本合同的任何修改,只有经甲、乙双方签署书面协议后方能生效。

10. Any annex is the integral part of this contract.

本合同一切附件均为本合同的有效组成部分。

11. Any departure from the terms and conditions of the contract must be advised in writing.

任何与合同条款相背离的地方,都必须以书面形式通知。

12. Any failure by a party to carry out all or part of his obligations under the contract shall be considered as a substantial breach.

一方当事人不履行本合同的全部或部分义务应被视为是根本违约。

13. Any party has no right to terminate this contract without another party’s agreement.

未经另一方当事人同意,任何当事人均无权终止合同。

14. Any violation of deadlines contained in the contract will equate to breach of contract.

凡违反合同规定的任何期限都等同违约。

15. Contract law is initially concerned with determining what promises the law will enforce or recognize as creating legal rights.

合同法首先涉及确认哪些许诺可以作为创设的法律权利而由法律强制实施或承认。

16. Examples of void contracts are those entered into as a result of misrepresentation, duress or undue influence.

无效合同可以是因虚假陈述、强迫或不正当施压而签订的合同。

17. He is incompetent to sign the contract.

他没有签署合同的行为能力。

18. He reasonably believes that there will be a fundamental non-performance of the contract by the other party.

他有理由认为对方当事人根本不会履行此合同。

19. He signed a covenant against under letting the premises.

他签署了一个反对廉价出租屋的契约。

20. He was incapable of fulfilling the terms of the contract.

他没有能力履行合同条款。

21. If a contract becomes invalid, the validity of its independently existing clauses pertaining to the settlement of disputes shall not be affected.

合同无效并不影响合同中独立存在的有关解决争议方法的条款的效力。

22. If a minor ratifies a contract upon reaching the age of majority, he or she is then bound to it.

如未成年人在达到法定年龄时追认合同,他/她便应受合同之约束。

23. If any of the above-mentioned clauses is inconsistent with the following additional clauses, the latter is to be taken as authentic.

以上任何条款如与下列附加条款相抵触,以下列附加条款为准。

24. If there are provisions as otherwise stated in respect to contracts in other laws, such provisions shall be followed.

其他法律对合同另有规定,应依照这些规定。

25. If there is no acceptance, by definition there is no contract.

按照定义,没有承诺合同便不能成立。

26. In case of heavy losses, failure of a party to fulfill the obligations prescribed by the contract or force majeure, the contract may be terminated.

如发严重亏损,一方不履行合同规定的义务或不可抗力等,可提前终止合同。

27. Lawfully established contracts shall be protected by law.

依法成立的合同受法律保护。

28. Marine insurance contracts are indemnity contracts and require the parties to exercise the utmost good faith.

海上保险合同属于赔偿合同,要求双方当事人尽到最大善意的义务。

29. No changing or modification of this Agreement shall be valid unless the same is made in writing.

本协议之修改必须作成书面始生效力。

30. No consideration, no contract.

无对价不成立。

31. Other special terms will be listed bellow.

其他特别条款罗列如下。

32. Party A and B have reached an agreement through friendly consultation to conclude the following contract.

甲、乙双方,经友好协商一致,订立此合同。

33. Parties hereto may revise or supplement through negotiation matters not mentioned herein.

本合同如有未尽事宜,双方可协商修订或补充。

34. Payment will be held up until the contract has been signed.

付款将延期到合同签订。

35. Please amend your copy of the contract accordingly.

请将你的合同副本做相应地修正。

36. Promises resulting from either express or an implied agreement can be enforced.

明示协定或默示协定所产生的允诺都可具有强制力。

37. She did not abide by the terms of the agreement.

她没有遵守协议的条款。

38. The agreement is binding on all parties.

该协议对各方当事人都有约束力。

39. The agreement of the parties is subject to review and approval of the board of directors.

当事人的协议须经董事会的审查和批准。

40. The conditions of the contract are still to be determined.

合同条件还有待确定。

41. The contact has been engrossed ready for signature.

合同已正式写成等待签署。

42. The contract has to be signed in the presence of two witnesses.

该合同必须在有两个证人在场的情况下签署。

43. The contract was declared null and void.

合同被宣告无效。

44. The contract was annulled by the court.

合同被法院废止。

45. The express agreement of parties overcomes the law.

双方当事人的明示协议优先于法律。

46. The following documents shall be deemed to form and be read and construed as an integral part of this contract.

下列文件应被当作、理解和解释为本合同的组成部分。

47. The issue of this action is the date of the contract.

本案争论点是合同的日期。

48. The parties may dissolve the contract upon consensus through consultation.

当事人协商一致,可以解除合同。

49. The parties shall, when making a contract, have corresponding capacity for civil rights and civil conduct.

当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。

50. The parties to a contract shall fully fulfill their obligations pursuant to the terms of the contract.

合同的双方当事人应当按照合同条款,充分地履行各自的义务。

51. The parties to the contract have equal legal status, and neither party may impose its will in the other.

合同双方当事人法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。

52. The use of a prescribed contract form can reduce the uncertainty.

格式化合同的采用可以减少不确定性。

53. They took the unilateral decision to cancel the contract.

他们单方面决定撤消合同。

54. This Agreement and the schedules hereto constitute the entire agreement between the parties relating to the subject mater hereof.

本协议及其附件构成双方关于本协议标的之完整协议。

55. This contract is executed in three counterparts, all of which are considered as originals and of the same effect.

本合同一式三份,均应视为原件,具有同等效力。

56. This contract will be effective after being signed by both parties.

本合同一经双方签字后立即生效。

57. This offer will be lapsed automatically after the time limit.

这项要约在期限过后,便会自动失效。

58. We hereby revoke the agreement of May8,2004.

这项特此宣告2004年5月8日的协议无效。

59. What is left unmentioned in contract may be added there as an appendix.

本合同未尽事宜,可由双方增补作为合同附件。

60. You have to get the permission of all the signatories to the agreement if you want to change the terms.

如果要改动条款,你必须获得协议所有签署者的允许。

法律英语听力MP3合集

Insurance 保险 Real property 不动产
Process 传票 Judge 法官
Law 法律 Court 法庭
Citizens’ right 公民权利 Company law 公司法
International law 国际法 Negligence 过失行为
Partnership 合伙 Contract and agreement 合同和协议
Environment protection 环境保护 Marriage and family life 婚姻和家庭
Prosecutor 检察官 Traffic 交通
Encumbrance 财产负担 Police 警察
Jurisprudence 法理 Lawyer 律师
Offense 犯罪 Instrument 票据
Jurisdiction 管辖权 Appeal 上诉
Customs and tariff 海关和关税 Death penalty 死刑
Settlement 和解 Costs 诉讼费
Shipping and maritime law 货运和海商法 Juvenile delinquency 未成年人违法
Loan and lease 借贷和租赁 Punishment 刑罚
Legislation 立法 Remedy 救济
Jury 陪审团 Contempt of court 藐视法庭
Tort 侵权 Bankruptcy 破产
Trial 审判 Tax 税收
Pleading 诉辩状 Litigation 诉讼
ownership 所有权 Agency 委托代理
Consumer’s right 消费者权益 Trust 信托
Criminal law principles 刑法原则 Criminal investigation 刑事侦察
Medical care 医疗保健 Duty 责任
Transaction 业务交易 Bidding 招投标
Plaintiff and Defendant 原告和被告 Intellectual property 知识产权
Debt 债务 Will and Succession 遗嘱和继承
Securities 证券 Gift 赠与
Arbitration 仲裁 Evidence 证据

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