优秀合同翻译者必须具备的四个条件

对合同协议译者的要求与合同协议翻译的标准是密切相关的。合同协议翻译的标准是对合同协议译文的要求,是指导合同协议翻译实践的准则;对合同协议译者的要求则是从事合同协议翻译的必备条件。做好合同协议文件的翻译工作,要求译者具备多方面的素养,但以下四个条件是必备的:

第一,具有高度的责任心(sense of responsibility)。

作为国际商务合同的译者,一定要具备高度的责任心和严肃认真、一丝不苟的工作作风。国际商务合同涉及到中外各方的经济利益,也涉及一国的主权原则。译者翻译合同文件时,不应仅仅满足于翻译本身,还应从法律的、经济的、社会的多方面因素考虑,善于运用正确的立场、观点和方法来分析研究和深人理解原文的内容,对原文出现的有悖于我国法律、政策的条款内容,应及时向有关方面指出,以免造成损失。应该明确指出的是,合同的译者首先是原文的审校者,这是合同译者与其他作品译者的很大不同点。例如,在一份由外方起草的中外合资经营企业合同中,有这样一则条款:
 
In case of an inability to continue operations due to heavy losses in successive years as a result of Force Majeure, the duration of the joint venture and the contract may be terminated prior to the time of expiration after unanimous agreement of the board of directors.

译者在研读了这段条款后,发现该条款内容有悖于我国的《中外合资经营企业法》的有关规定,并及时向有关方面提出建议:“按照《中外合资经营企业法》的规定,合资经营企业如发生严重亏损、一方不履行合同和章程规定的义务,以及产生不可抗力等,经合营各方协商同意,报请审查批准机关批准,并向国家工商行政管理主管部门登记,方可终止合同”。之后,中方与外方协商后,在原条款后又补写了approval by the original examination and approval authority。

翻译合同时绝对不能忽视的三大细节

实践证明,合同翻译中容易出错的地方,往往是一些关键的细节方面,而不是大的陈述性条款。这些细节可以归纳成以下三个方面。

 

一、合同责任条款的翻译

众所周知,合同中要明确规定双方的责任。为准确翻译出双方责任的权限与范围,常常使用连词和介词的固定结构。现把最常用的此类结构举例说明如下。

<1> and/or(和/或)

常用 and/or 来翻译合同中“甲和乙+甲或乙”的内容,这样就可避免漏译其中的一部分。

例:如果上述货物对船舶和(或)船上其它货物造成任何损害,托运人应负全责。

The shipper shall be liable for all damage caused by such goods to the ship and/or cargo on board.

<2> by and between(强调双方)

常用 by and between 强调合同是由“双方”签订的,因此双方必须严格履行合同所赋予的责任。

例:买卖双方同意按下述条款购买出售下列商品并签订本合同。

This Contract is made by and between the Buyer and the Seller, whereby the Buyer agrees to buy and the Seller agrees to sell the undermentioned commodity subject to the terms and conditions stipulated below.

二、合同时间条款的翻译

在翻译与时间有关的文字时,都应非常严格慎重地处理,因为合同对时间的要求是准确无误。所以翻译起止时间时,常用以下结构来限定准确的时间。

<1> 双介词 on and after

用双介词来翻译含当天日期在内的起止时间。

例:自 8 月 10 日起,甲方已无权接受任何定单或收据。

Party A shall be unauthorized to accept any orders or to collect any account on and after 10th August.

我公司的条件是,1个月内,即不得晚于 1 月 1 日,支付现金。

Our terms are cash within one month, i.e. on or before Jan 1.

<2> not (no) later than

用“not (no) later than +日期”翻译“不迟于某月某日”。

例:本合同签字之日一个月内,即不迟于 10 月 1 日,你方须将货物装船。

Party B shall ship the goods within one month of the date of signing this Contract, i.e. not later than Oct 1.

<3> include 的相应形式

常用 include 的相应形式:inclusiveincludingincluded,来限定含当日在内的时间。

例:本证在北京议付,有效期至 1 月 1 日。

This credit expires till January 1(inclusive) for negotiation in Beijing. (or: This credit expires till and including January 1 for negotiation in Beijing.) 如果不包括 1 月 1 日在内,英译为 till and not including January 1。

三、合同金额条款的翻译

为避免金额数量的差漏、伪造或涂改,英译时常用以下措施严格把关。

<1>大写文字重复金额

英译金额须在小写之后,在括号内用大写文字重复该金额,即使原文合同中没有大写,英译时也有必要加上大写。在大写文字前加上“SAY”,意为“大写”;在最后加上“ONLY”.意思为“整”。必须注意:小写与大写的金额数量要一致。

例:总金额为500美 元整。

The total amount is US $ 500 (SAY FIVE HUNDRED US DOLLARS ONLY).

<2>正确使用货币符号

英译金额必须注意区分和正确使用各种不同的货币名称符号。“$”既可代表“美元”,又可代表其他某些地方的货币;而“£”不仅代表“英镑”,又可代表其他某些地方的货币。

必须注意:当金额用数字书写时,金额数字必须紧靠货币符号,例如:Can $12,568,不能写成:Can $  12,568。另外,翻译的还要特别注意金额中是小数点 (.) 还是分节号 (,),因为这两个符号极易引起笔误,稍有疏忽,其后果是不堪设想的。

合同翻译中最易混淆的七组词语

合同翻译时,尤其是翻译商务合同时,常常由于选词不当而寻致词不达意或者意思模棱两可,有时甚至表达的是完全不同的含义。因此了解与掌握极易混淆的词语的区别是极为重要的,是提高合同翻译质量的关键因素之一,现把常用且易混淆的七对词语,用典型实例论述如下。

一、abide by 与 comply with

abide by 与 comply with 都有“遵守”的意思.但是当主语是“人”时,英译“遵守”须用 abide by。当主语是非人称时,则用 comply with 英译“遵守”。

例:

Both parties Shall abide by the contractual stipulations.

双方都应遵守合同规定。

All the activities of both parties shall comply with the contractual stipulations.

双方的一切活动都应遵守合同规定

二、shipping advice 与 shipping instructions

shipping advice 是“装运通知”,是由出口商(卖主)发给进口商(买主)的。然而 shipping instructions 则是“装运须知”,是进口商(买主)发给出口商(卖主)的。另外要注意区分 delivery note (送货回执) 与delivery order (交货单),vendor(卖主)与 vendee(买主),consignor(发货人)与 consignee(收货人)。上述这四对词语在英译时、极易发生笔误。

三、change A to B 与 change A into B

“把 A 改为 B”应该翻译成“change A to B”,而“把 A 折合成/兑换成 B”应该翻译成用“change A into B”,两者不可混淆。

例:

交货期改为 5 月并将人民币折合成美元。

Both parties agree that change the time of shipment to June and change Renminbi into US dollar.

四、ex/per/by

源自拉丁语的介词 ex 与 per 有各自不同的含义。翻译由某轮船“运来”的货物时用 ex,由某轮船“运走”的货物用 Per,而由某轮船“承运”用 by。

由“维多利亚”轮运走/运来/承运的最后一批货将于 8 月 10 日抵达伦敦。

The last batch per/ex/by S.S. “Victoria” will arrive at London on 10th August (S.S. = Steamship)

五、in 与 after

当英译“多少天之后”的时间时,往往是指“多少天之后”的确切的一天,所以必须用介词 in,而不能用 after,因为介词 after 指的是“多少天之后”的不确切的任何一天。

该货于 8 月 10 日由“东风”轮运出,41 天后抵达鹿纽约港。

The good shall be shipped per M.V. “Dong Feng” on 10th August and are due to arrive at New York Port in 41 days. (M.V.= motor vessel)

注:这里如果改用after的话,就是指在41天之后的某一天到达,而不是41天后。

六、on/upon 与 after

当翻译“……到后,就……”时,用介词 on/upon,而不用 after,因为 after 表示“之后”的时间不明确。

发票货值须货到付给。

The invoice value is to be paid on/upon arrival of the goods.

七、by 与 before

当翻译终止时间时,比如“在某月某日之前”,如果包括所指定日期时,就用介词 by;如果不包括所指定日期,即指到所写日期的前一天为止,就要用介词 before

卖方须在 6 月 15 日前将货交给买方。

The vendor shall deliver the goods to the vendee by June 15.(or: before June 16,说明含 6 月 15 日在内。如果不含 6 月 15 日,就直接译为 by June 14 或者 before June 15。)

合同翻译常用句型和词汇

 
This contract is made in two originals that should be held by each party. 此合同一式二份,由双方各持一正本。
What is left unmentioned in contract may be added there as an appendix. 本合同未尽事宜,可由双方增补作为合同附件。
The Contract is written in quadruplicate (two for original and copy respectively) which shall become valid on the date of signature. 本合同一式四份(正副本各两份)自签署后生效
This Contract is executed in two counterparts each in Chinese and English, each of which shall be deemed equally authentic. This contract is in 2 copies effective since being signed/sealed by both parties. 本合同为中英文两种文本,两种文本具有同等效力。本合同一式两份。自双方签字(盖章)之日起生效。
This contract is made by and between the buyers and sellers, whereby the buyers agree to buy and the sellers agree to sell the under-mentioned. Commodities according to the terms and conditions stipulated below. 本合同由买卖双方签订,根据本合同条款,买方同意购买,卖方同意出售以下产品。
   

买方 buyer

卖方 seller

项目名称 Project name

地址 address

电话 phone

传真 fax

联系人 contact person

1. 详细货物清单 Detail supply list

2. 合同价格 Contract value

序号 item 型号 model 尺寸 size, dimension 数量 amount, unit 单价 unit price 总价 total price 备注 remark 货物,运费 freight, transportation 合同总额(含安装费与税金) Contract amount incl. VAT & installation

3. 付款条件 payment conditions, payment terms

4. 交货地点 delivery place

5. 发货期 delivery time

6. 安装条款 installation clause

7. 验收条款 inspection clause

8. 保证条款 guarantee clause

9. 不可抗拒条款 Force Majeure Clause

10. 违约条款 Breach clause

11. 其他条款 Miscellaneous clause

12. 买卖双方信息 buyer and seller information

a long-term contract 长期合同

a short-term contract 短期合同

completion of contract 完成合同

contract for future delivery 期货合同

contract for goods 订货合同

contract for purchase 采购合同

contract for service 劳务合同

labor contract  劳动合同

contract note 买卖合同(证书)

contract of arbitration 仲裁合同

contract of carriage /Carriage Contract运输合同

Passenger Carriage Contract 客运合同

Cargo Carriage Contract     货运合同

Technology Contract  技术合同

Technology Development Contract技术开发合同

Technology Transfer Contract技术转让合同

Technical Consulting Contract技术咨询合同

Technical Service Contract技术服务合同

Safekeeping Contract 保管合同

Warehousing Contract  仓储合同

Agency Appointment Contract 委托合同

Trading-Trust Contract 行纪合同

Brokerage Contract 居间合同

Multi-modal Carriage Contract多式联运合同

contract of employment 雇佣合同

contract of insurance 保险合同

contract of sale 销售合同

Sales Contract 买卖合同

Contract for Supply of Power, Water, Gas , Or Heat 供电、水、气、热合同

Gift Contract 赠与合同

Contract for Loan of Money 借款合同

contract law www.legaltranz.com  合同法

Leasing Contract  租赁合同

Financial Leasing Contract 融资租赁合同

Contracts of Hired Work 承揽合同

Contracts for Construction Project 建设工程合同

contract life 合同有效期

a nice fat contract 一个很有利的合同

a written contract 书面合同

an executor contract 尚待执行的合同

breach of contract 违反合同

cancellation of contract 撤消合同

contract parties 合同当事人

contract period (or contract term) 合同期限

contract price 合约价格

contract provisions/stipulations 合同规定

contract sales 订约销售

contract terms (or contract clause) 合同条款

contract wages 合同工资

contract 合同,订立合同

contractor 订约人,承包人

contractual claim 根据合同的债权

contractual damage 合同引起的损害

contractual dispute 合同上的争议

contractual guarantee 合同规定的担保

contractual income 合同收入

contractual liability/obligation 合同规定的义务

contractual practice/usage 合同惯例

contractual specifications 合同规定

contractual terms & conditions 合同条款和条件

contractual 合同的,契约的

contractual-joint-venture 合作经营,契约式联合经营

copies of the contract 合同副本

originals of the contract 合同正本

execution of contract/performance of contract  履行合同

expiration of contract 合同期满

interpretation of contract 解释合同

renewal of contract 合同的续订

此合同一式二份,由双方各持一正本。This contract is made in two originals that should be held by each party.

What is left unmentioned in contract may be added there as an appendix.  本合同未尽事宜,可由双方增补作为合同附件。

The Contract is written in quadruplicate (two for original and copy respectively) which shall become valid on the date of signature. 本合同一式四份(正副本各两份)自签署后生效