法律英语中撇号(’)的几个简单使用规则

不管是以英语为母语的人还是以非英语为母语的人,撇号都经常被错误的使用。但是这些错误能够通过以下几个简单的规则来避免。

 

撇号有两种用途

 

第一种用途是表示一个单词的缩写,或者两个单词的结合。

 

例如:legaltranz.com is a good website, so don’t hesitate to visit it.

 

法律英语翻译网是一个不错的网站,所以别犹豫,来访问它吧。

 

用撇号来缩写单词的使用方法在法律英语写作中并不常见,因为这种缩写在大部分情况下被视为不够正式。

 

第二种用途是用来表示所属关系。表示某样东西属于某人或其它某物。

 

例如:The client’s payment was late.

 

客户的付款延迟了。

 

当超过一个人拥有某样东西时,把撇号放在‘s’后面。

 

例如:The clients’ payments were late. 客户们的付款延期了。

 

当然,你也可以用另一种方式表达这个意思:The payments of the clients were late. 但从现代英语的角度看来,这种表达不够简练。

 

当使用its时,要注意。只有在it isit has的缩写时,才使用撇号。

 

例如:It’s a straightforward case.

 

当把its作为所属关系来使用时,撇号应该省略掉。

 

例如:Legaltranz.com has its advantages.

 

6 steps to write a good legal brief

A legal brief is a document used to submit an argument to a court. Briefs are generally written by lawyers and are intended to persuade the court to rule in your favor on a particular issue. Here are a few tips to help you write an effective legal brief.

Step 1

Prepare a caption. Court rules state that every pleading should contain a caption including the name of the court, the title of the action, the file number and names of the parties.

Step 2

Begin with a preliminary statement. This should identify the party submitting the brief and inform the court of the relief requested. Generally, a preliminary statement should be kept short and provide the court with enough information to understand the issues to be addressed in the brief.

Step 3

State the facts relevant to the brief. Facts should not be misrepresented, but can be presented in a way that is favorable to your argument. Be sure to cite to the record to support these facts.

Step 4

Make your argument. This is the part of the brief where you present your case. Analyze why the law supports the relief you are requesting. Apply the law to your set of facts and cite to cases that support your position. Generally, you should make your strongest arguments first, followed by secondary relevant arguments.

Step 5

Acknowledge the counter-argument. It won’t help your case to ignore any valid arguments that can be made by the other side. Address these arguments and explain to the court why your case is different. Distinguish any relevant cases that do not support your argument on their facts.

Step 6

Conclude your brief. Tell the court what relief you are seeking and ask for that relief.

Tips & Warnings

1. Try to keep your brief brief. Courts appreciate brevity and clarity.

2. Avoid legalese and incivility.

法律英语中的破折号和连字符应该在什么情况下使用?

在法律英语写作中,我们经常会遇到的破折号和连字符,应该在什么情况下使用才得当呢?

破折号 Dashes

有两种情况,我们可以使用破折号。

1. 把一个从句放在两个破折号之间。

例如:Very few – in fact almost none – of the lawyers working in this city haven’t been to legaltranz.com to study legal English.

上面例句中使用破折号可以使句子的意思清晰,而没有在此处用可能会使意思混淆的逗号。

2. 一个长的破折号可以用来作为’to’的替代。

例如:The proposed route is Helsinki — New York — Helsinki.

连字符 Hyphens

使用连字符的情况也有两种。

1. 当第一个单词是第二个单词的前缀时,用连字符把两个单词合起来。(特别是在英国英语中)

例如:Pre-trial, non-statutory. 这类词在美式英式英语中通常就是一个单词,中间没有连字符:pretrial, nonstatutory.

2. 用在由一个以上单词构成的形容词短语上。

例如:health-care provider or real estate purchase.

专利申请/专利权转让合同翻译模板

专利申请/专利权转让合同

 

兹有转让方的专利申请/专利:

专利申请号:_______________ 专利申请日: ________________________

专利申请名称: ____________________________________________________________

愿将上述专利申请的全部权益转让给受让方。

转让方(签章):                       受让方(签章):

(原申请人/专利权人)

转让方法人代表(签章):               受让方法人代表(签章):

年 月 日                                                 年 月 日

ASSIGNMENT CONTRACT

I/We, the assignor, the owner of the patent application

Patent Application Number: _________________ Filing Date: ___________________

Title: ________________________________________________________

do hereby assign all of our share to the rights and interests in relation to the above identified patent application in the People’s Republic of China to the assignee as listed below.

By Assignor:                                                                                           By Assignee:

Signature of the Legal Representative of                                   Signature of the Legal Representative

of the Assignor:                                                                                    of the Assignee:

_www.legaltranz.com______________                                   __law.legaltranz.com____________

Dated this: _________________                                                Dated this: _________________

法律英语中使用句号的四种情形

英国英语管句号叫full stop, 而美国英语称之为period. 句号主要在以下四个场合使用。

第一种场合:在非疑问句和感叹句的句尾。通常句号后面的下一个字母是有大写字母开头。

第二种场合:在缩写后。如:’Sun. 10 August’.

第三种场合:当句子以引用语结尾,并且该引用语自身已经带了句号,问号或者是感叹号,那么这里就不再需要使用另一个句号了。但是,如果引用语本身很短,而且整句话比引用语更加重要的时候,可以在引号外面加一个句号。如:

On the door were written the words ‘no entry’.

第四种场合:连续三个句号表示下文的省略。这个时候如果加上第四个句号则表示整句话的结束。如: ‘legaltranz.com … is exceptionally useful … I visit it every day.’

法律英语中圆括号和方括号的使用

圆括号 Parentheses

 

圆括号主要是用来装短语或整个句子。如果整个句子都在圆括号里面,那么这个句子结尾的标点符号也要在圆括号里面。例如:(Legaltranz.com is hereinafter referred to as ‘Legaltranz’.)

如只有句子的结尾部分在圆括号里面,那么这个句子结尾的标点符号就要在圆括号的外面。例如:Legaltranz.com (hereinafter referred to as ‘Legaltranz’).

圆括号使用的主要场合如下:

1. 把作者的备注或摘要放在圆括号里面。如:’Mr X (as I shall call him) then stood up to speak’.

2. 把权威引用、定义、解释、参考或者翻译放在圆括号里。

3. 在演讲报告中,把被观众打断的情况放入圆括号中。

4. 把作为参考的字母或者数字放入圆括号中。如:’(1)(a)’

不要在圆括号中使用圆括号 – 使用逗号或者破折号来代替。用破折号来把句子里的概念分开是一个很有用的方法。

方括号 Square brackets

 

方括号用来放入由新作者或编辑之后加入的(而不是原始就有的)评论、更正、解释或注释。

在法律英语写作中,方括号用来调节引述材料的格式。如用来标示在原文中的大写字母现在用小写(’The court ruled that “[e]xistence of the subject matter of the contract precluded a finding of force majeure”.’).

What is a Legal Memo?

A legal memo or a legal memorandum is a specific type of essay dealing with a legal issue. The legal memo is usually written and researched by a paralegal, a law student, or lawyer. It contains these basic elements: statement of facts, issues, conclusions, discussions of the law pertaining to facts, citations of previous applicable cases, and recommendations based on this discussion.

Order of the information contained in a legal memo can differ. Usually one begins with a statement of facts. This section of the legal memo is usually a brief but succinct paragraph that states the relevant facts at hand. A statement of legal issues that underlie the facts tends to follow the statement of facts.

At this point, a conclusion may be offered which will direct the discussion of previous cases dealing with the stated issues in the legal memo. Alternately, the conclusion may come at the end of a legal memo. Format depends upon the law firm for which one is practicing or working, or the way in which a law school dictates format if one is writing a sample legal memo.

A conclusion can then be followed by a discussion of all relevant examples of law, or rulings that prove a conclusion and suggest logical recommendations. This section involves a great deal of research to show that the lawyer is justified in taking whatever position she does. Everything must be cited according to the preferences of the firm or school.

Based on discussion and citation, the legal memo may conclude with recommendations on how to proceed, and how best to help a client with a legal issue. Generally, the legal memo is just a part of the legal process.

A longer version of the legal memo, which may be presented to a judge when numerous decisions must be made, is a legal brief, citing all relevant sources that “prove” an attorney’s stance on the law. These briefs, like the legal memo, support arguments for certain kinds of rights and rulings accorded to a client.

To the layperson, the legal memo is just one way in which lawyers gather research to effectively argue or settle a case. It is similar to a research paper, but tends to be organized into very clear sections, and is law specific.

The Format of a Legal Office Memorandum

Most memoranda share a common format: a heading, an issue, a short answer, a statement of facts, a discussion, and a conclusion.

The Heading consists of four lines: to, from, date, and subject (re:). You should include your client’s name as well as a descriptive subject in the re: line, as each client file typically will require multiple memoranda.

The Issue section usually contains a statement of the issue the memo addresses. Sometimes the issue is called the “question presented.”

The Short Answer answers the question presented succinctly and should supply a summary of the key reasons supporting the answer.

The Statement of Facts section, often shortened to “Facts,” includes an objective statement of the client’s facts that are pertinent to the issue described in the memo.

The Discussion section collects and describes the law, both favorable and unfavorable, applicable to the client’s situation.

The Conclusion is a short section summarizing the contents of the entire memo. It pulls together the most critical facts and legal analysis into a few sentences. In shorter memoranda, lawyers commonly omit the conclusion.

If you follow this format, you will be well on your way to writing a well-organized legal office memorandum.

what is the purpose of a Legal Office Memo?

Most memoranda serve one of two functions: analyzing a client’s specific legal problem or answering questions that the client’s particular situation poses. Before writing, a lawyer will research the applicable mandatory (binding) case law and the persuasive (nonbinding) case law to determine the legal landscape. The lawyer will also review any applicable statutory provisions or regulatory issuances from administrative bodies.

After finishing the research process, the lawyer will then interpret the client’s situation in light of the applicable law. An office memorandum sums up the lawyer’s analysis and supplies the facts the lawyer relied upon in reaching the conclusion. The main point of the memorandum should be to advise whether a client can lawfully engage in conduct or predict how a decision maker will rule on a legal problem.

The intended audience for the memo should not have to read the cases, statutes, or regulations the memo discusses to understand the legal landscape. Rather, the point of the memo is to summarize the pertinent law in a digestible, short format that encapsulates the situation succinctly for the reader. After a brief review of the office memorandum, an attorney who was formerly unfamiliar with the case law should be able to give well-founded advice to a client. Ensuring the memo follows a prescribed format keeps it easy for the reader to find the information he or she needs. 

法律英语中冒号和分号的使用

冒号 (Colons)

冒号通常用来指出跟在其后面的信息。它也可以用作两个句子之间的连接。下面给出一些使用方法的例子:

1. 在一份清单之前使用冒号。(如,’The following items are included:’)

2. 当介绍主题中的某一个步骤,或者从一个普通的讲述转移到某个具体的情景时使用冒号。(如,’The remedy is simple: introduce new rules.’).

3. 在显示因果关系的时候使用冒号。Cause and effect(如,’The argument used by the defence was as follows:’).

分号 (Semicolons)

当用逗号不能把句子中各个部分明显分开的时候,或者句中各部分联系过于紧密的时候,就要考虑使用分号来把句子分开。如:”To err is human; to forgive, divine’.

在法律英语写作和翻译中,如果遇到比较长的句子由很多从句或者段落组成,这个时候,我们就要在这些从句或者段落的尾部使用分号。但是如果比较长的句子由分句或者段落结尾,那么使用句号会更加合适。