张法连教授谈法律英语证书(LEC)考试

 在‘法律英语的学习与测试’学术讲座上,中国政法大学的张法连教授谈到LEC-法律英语证书考试。

LEC考试实际上是引进美国的Bar考试,然后加入了法律翻译和case reading两个部分。但是题目的难以不一样,考试侧重法律英语水平测试。

法律英语证书考试为什么考美国法?

美国是世界上法律体系最完善的国家,美国法的一些标准在国际规则和国际法里面运用的很多。它的影响比较大,所以是采用测试美国法。学习美国法就能学到比较标准地道的法律英语,而不是说我们把中国(法律)翻译成英文,那样非常不地道。

关于法律英语证书(LEC)考试

考试分试卷一和试卷二,各需三个小时完成。试卷一为选择题。试卷二是主观题,包括案例阅读、翻译和法务写作三项。

试卷(一), 客观题(单选题),共100道小题,每题1分。

本部分试题有以下两部分内容组成:美国法基本知识(90-95%)和逻辑推理(5-10%)
难易程度比例设置:容易题目占50%,中等难度试题占30%,高难度试题占20%。
(1)、美国基本法知识各部门法所占比例设置:合同法10-15%;宪法2-4%;侵权法10-15%;证据法5-7%;民事程序法2-4%;刑事程序法2-4%;知识产权法5-7%;商事组织法10-15%;证券法5-7%;财产法10-15%;票据法2-4%;刑法10-15%。
(2)、逻辑推理(5-10%)
试卷(二), 主观题,有案件阅读、翻译和法务写作三部分,每部分各占25分、40分和35分。
难易程度比例设置:中等难度试题占80%,高难度试题占20%。
(1)、案件阅读 (case reading and comprehension)共25分
  本部分试题包括一篇美国真实案例。要求应试者在准确、快速阅读案例后,根据获得的案例中的信息简略回答有关问题。

(2)、翻译(Translation)共40分
本部分试题有两节,Section A 和Section B。Section A 是中译英,Section B 是英译中,各占20分。

(3)、法务写作(Legal Writing)共35分
要求应试者根据所给信息,用英文撰写一封律师函,或写一篇法律备忘录(Law Office Memo);或根据所提供的案例,代表某一方写一篇案件辩论书(Case Brief)。

政法大学法律英语精品课程(视频)

中国政法大学沙丽金教授主讲,主要讲述法律英语的一些特点和基础知识,涉及到Plain English, 法律拉丁词汇,法律翻译时易错词解析,由浅入深,知识量丰富。本课程用英文讲授,适合有一定英语和法律翻译基础的朋友学习参考。

一、Characteristics of legal English 法律英语的特点

  1. Lengthy and complex sentences 长句和复杂句
  2. Archaic words and expressions 古词语表达
  3. Latin Words 拉丁语使用(如Versus, Per se 本身,De facto – De facto marriage 事实婚姻,Stare Decisis 遵循先例原则,Pro forma等)

二、Plain English and Terms 简明法律英语

Ask – Request

Because – In view of the fact that

Before – Prior to

Carry out – Implement

Cause – Give rise to

Come – Emanate

Explain – Clarify

Give – Make a donation of

If – In the event of

三、Terms in Legal Context 专业术语

He possesses a good title to the house – complete ownership

They initiated a class action in the court

Both his personal property and real property have been involved in the lawsuit

The invention should be different from the prior art – 现有技术

四、Terms with Special Meanings 特殊意义的词

侵权 tort/infringement  –  (IPR Intellectual Property Rights)the infringement against the copy right (patent, trademark, etc)

裁决 verdict/judgment – verdict (made by jury)/ judgment (made by judge)

起诉状:information/indictment – information (charging document issued by prosecutor)/indictment(issue by grand jury)

规定 stipulates(in contract) / prescribe(in Law)

起诉 sue(civil cases)/charge(criminal cases)

Frisk and stop (criminal procedure)

Arrest (criminal procedure)

实用法律英语 家庭婚姻法 (视频)

Applied Legal English 实用法律英语

Family and Marital Law 家庭婚姻法

法律英语视频系列教程

基础法律英语系列

实用法律英语系列

商贸法律英语系列

一 法律基础知识 一 劳动法 一 公司法
二 法律的分类 二 财产法 二 票据法
三 犯罪的分类 三 家庭婚姻法 三 国际贸易术语
四 证据 四 继承法 四 合同基本条款

Words and expressions:

* Marriage 婚姻

* Marital communications privilege 婚姻特权

* Age of consent 结婚年龄,承诺年龄

* Spousal right 婚姻权

* Matrimonial action 婚姻诉讼

* Bigamy 重婚

* Spousal support 离婚赡养费

* Void marriage 无效婚姻

* Valid marriage 有效婚姻

* Minor children 未成年子女

* Marital property law 婚姻财产法

* Divorce 离婚

* Grounds for divorce 离婚理由

* Abandoned child/spouse 被遗弃的孩子或配偶

* Legal effect 法律效力

* Annulment of a marriage宣告婚姻无效

* Filiations 私生子父亲的确定

* Assilimilation…to…视同…

* Legitimate children 婚生子女

* Absolute divorce 绝对离婚。在美国一些州,还有其它的方式结束婚姻,如法律上的分居和解除婚约。

* Separation and relieve the engagement 分居和解除婚约

Passage:

Family law covers marriage formation; the legal effects of marriage; marriage termination by divorce, separation and annulment, filiations, and family support obligations。

In all the other parts of family law, extensive code revision has taken place under the influence of three major trends:

1). Liberalization of divorce

2). The equalization of the position of women in the areas of family-decision making and property right.;

3). The assilimilation of the status of children born outside legal marriage to that of legitimate children.

The legal regime is typically a form of community property, usually with pre-marital property and property acquired through gift or inheritance keep separate if it can be identified as such. The modern trend favor forms of the so-called “deferred community”, in which the spouses are treated as separate owners of whatever they respectively acquire during the marriage. But property acquired during the marriage is divided equally upon its termination by divorce or death.

家庭法包括婚姻的成立,婚姻的法律效力,由于离婚,分居,宣告婚姻无效所致的婚姻终止,私生子父亲的确定,以及家庭成员的抚养义务。

三个主要的趋势影响到家庭法的修改:1). 离婚的自由化;  2). 妇女在家庭决策中的平等地位以及财产权方面的平等化;3). 非婚生子女与婚生子女地位平等。

这种法律制度的典型形式是共同财产制度。通常来说,婚前财产以及若能证明一方通过赠予或获得的财产,犹为各自所有。现代趋势赞同的是所谓的“延迟的共同财产制”,指夫妇双方被视为是他们婚姻有续期间分别取得的财产的独立所有人。但由于离婚或死亡而造成的婚姻关系终止时,则要求均分婚姻存续期间取得的财产。

Supplementary points:

Void marriage: a void marriage is one that void and invalid from its beginning. It is as though the marriage never existed and it requires no formality to terminate it. 无效婚姻是指婚姻从一开始就是无效的,好像它从未存在过,并且终止这个婚姻不需要任何的形式和规定。

Spousal right: spousal right is an entitlement that is legally enforceable. 婚姻权是指一个配偶可以从另一个配偶处继承财产的权利。

Matrimonial action: matrimonial action refers to a lawsuit for the purpose of establishing or altering the marital status of the parties through an annulment or a divorce. 婚姻诉讼是指为了建立或改变婚姻当事人的关系而通过宣告婚姻结束或离婚而进行的诉讼。

Grounds for divorce: grounds for divorce is the legal reason a divorce is granted. There are two kinds of grounds: fault or no fault. 离婚理由是指批准离婚的合法原因,有两种理由:过错或无过错。

Bigamy: bigamy is the act of marrying a second time while one is still married to an other person. 重婚是一场婚姻继续存在的时候又与别人结婚的行为。

Dialogue:

Divorce in the United States:

– Must the person who seeks an absolute divorce fulfill certain residence requirements?

寻求绝对离婚的人需要有某种居住要求吗?

– Yes, each of the states has a specific requirement. The party who seeks a divorce under the laws of one state must actually have resided in the state or county where the divorce suit is filed for the time required by statue.

是的,每个州都有具体的规定。根据某州的法律寻求离婚的当事人必

须在该州或县居住够法定期限。

– Are there any restrictions on remarriage by the parties to a divorce?

对离婚当事人的再婚有什么限制?

– In some states the parties to a divorce cannot remarry with a certain period of time unless they remarry each other.

在某些州当事人在离婚后的一段期限内不得再婚,除非与前妻或前夫复

婚。

– What are the grounds for an absolute divorce in the fifty states?

在五十个州绝对离婚的理由是什么?

– Variously depending on the state, adultery, alcoholism, cruelty, desertion, fraud, imprisonment, incompatibility, indignities, separation and irreconcilable differences leading to breakdown of marriage.

各州的情况不同,通奸,酗酒,虐待,遗弃,欺骗,监禁,不和,侮辱,分居和难于和解的差异都会导致婚姻的破裂。

– A wife confess to her husband that she has committed adultery. He forgives her, continues to live with her, and has sexual relation with her. Later, he changes his mind, and seeks to obtain a divorce. Will he succeed?

妻子承认与人通奸,丈夫原谅她,继续和她生活并与她有性关系。但后来丈夫又改变了主意,要离婚。他能成功吗?

– No. in forgiving the adultery, the husband forfeited his right to a divorce on his ground. However, should the wife again commit the adultery after the forgiveness, the husband would have an action, since the forgiveness is merely conditioned on the wife’s future behavior.

不能,原谅了她就表示放弃了通奸这个离婚的理由。但是如果妻子在得到宽恕后又与人通奸,丈夫就有这个权利,因为原谅仅仅以妻子未来的行为为条件。

– What constitutes personal indignities? 什么是人身侮辱?

– Personal indignities usually consist of a course of conduct calculated to make the life of the complaining party intolerable. They may consist of acts of rudeness, haughtiness, and humiliating insults, abusive language and so on… In mental cruelty the act complained of is dangerous to the health or life of the spouse; In personal indignities, all that is necessary is to prove that the acts of one spouse make the other’s life unbearable. www.legaltranz.com

人身侮辱通常指故意使原告一方的生活无法忍受的行为过程,这些行为可能是粗暴,轻蔑,侮辱,冒犯和谩骂等等。精神折磨的行为是对配偶的健康或生活有危险的被控行为。所有的人身侮辱行为都要证明是配偶无法忍受的。

– What are incompatibility or irreconcilable differences which have caused marital breakdown?

什么是导致婚姻破裂的不可调和的或难于和解的矛盾?

– In any of the states where either of these is a ground for divorce, a decree will be granted when it is conclusively shown that the married couple is incapable of existing together in peace and harmony. The incompatibility may be sexual, intellectual, financial, religious, or temperamental.  Basically, incompatibility or irreconcilable differences should be the only grounds for divorce in a civilized society since they go to the very essence of marriage validity.

在任何一州,以上任何原因都可以是离婚的理由,当最后表明夫妇确实不能和睦相处时,则判决离婚. 不和可能是性,智力,金钱,宗教或性格的原因。性情不和应该是文明社会中离婚的唯一理由,因为它才是婚姻行之有效的关键。

– Is what way is fraud a ground for divorce?

什么是以欺骗为离婚的理由?

– Fraud, as a ground for divorce, is the use of any deceitful practice or device to induce one person to marry another.

这是指一方以欺骗的行为或方法诱使另一方结婚.

– Is the rate of divorce increasing or falling in the United States?

– It is increasing because of the changing views towards marriage.