法律法规三个主要部分的翻译技巧

三、“规定与罚则”。

这两部分是孪生兄弟,相辅相成。一般情况下,翻译罚则只要在规定前边加一个“不”字即可。在数码时代,更是不费吹灰之力,将规定中的有关内容复制,粘贴过来,先行否定,然后再稍加整理即可。请看《天津市收购废旧金属和信托寄卖业治安管理办法》里的例子:

第三条 经营收购生产性废旧金属的单位,须经经营所在地的公安分局、县公安局审查,符合规定的,由市公安局核发特种行业许可证。

经营收购非生产性废旧金属和信托寄卖业的单位和个人,须到经营所在地的公安分局备案。

禁止无证经营。

第十一条 违反本办法第三条第一款规定, 非法收购生产性废旧金属的,予以取缔,没收非法收购的物品及违法所得;对单位或直接责任者可并处5000元以上1万元以下罚款。

违反本办法第三条第二款规定,非法收购非生产性废旧金属的,对单位或直接责任者给予警告或处500元以下罚款。

违反本办法第三条第二款规定,非法经营信托寄卖业的,予以查封,对单位或直接责任者处1万元以下罚款,有违法所得的,处3万元以下罚款。(摘自《天津市收购废旧金属和信托寄卖业治安管理办法》)

Article 3 The units that engage in purchasing the industrial waste and used metals shall apply to the public security sub-bureau or county bureau of their location of business for examination, pass the examination, and obtain the permit for special business issued by the Municipal Public Security Bureau.

Units and individuals that engage in purchasing non-industrial waste and used metals and in running secondhand businesses shall file a report for record with the public security bureau of their location of business..

It is prohibited to run, without permits, businesses in the above- mentioned fields.

Article 11 Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 1 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste and used industrial metals, the authorities concerned shall stop its business and confiscate the illegally purchased articles,and the illegally obtained profits; It may also impose a fine of not less than Renminbi 5,000 yuan but not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan on the unit or the person directly responsible. wwww.legaltranz.com

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste or used non-industrial metals, the relevant authorities shall give the unit or the person directly responsible a warning or impose a fine of not more than Renminbi 500 yuan.

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally runs secondhand businesses, the authorities concerned shall close the shop and impose on the unit or the individual directly responsible a fine of not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan; In case there is illegally obtained profit, the fine shall be not more than Renminbi 30,000 yuan。

当然,规定与罚则的写法有各种不同的安排。有前后分列的,如上例,有的甚至还专门列出一章,谓之曰“奖励与处罚”或“法律责任”;也有的则把规定与罚则写在同一条款当中,这样,倒也显得更加紧凑一些。下面是一个规定与罚则并列的例子。选自《天津市市容和环境卫生管理条例》。

第三十一条  禁止下列影响环境卫生清洁的行为:

〈一〉随地吐痰、吐口香糖、便溺,乱倒粪便;

〈二〉乱扔烟蒂、纸屑、瓜果皮核以及各类包装废弃物等;

〈三〉乱倒、乱堆渣土、污泥或者其他废弃物,向道路、河道、公共场地上抛撒杂物、废弃物,由建筑物或者车辆向外抛掷杂物、废弃物。

违反前款第〈一〉项规定的,责令即时清除,并处五十元以上一百元以下罚款;违反第〈二〉项规定的,责令即时清除,并处十元以上五十元以下罚款;违反第(三〉项规定的,责令限期清除,逾期不清除的,处五十元以上五百元以下罚款,其中单位违反此项规定的,处五百元以上五千元以下罚款。

Article 31 The following acts that affect environmental sanitation are prohibited:

(1) Spitting, throwing chewing gums, urinating and moving bowels at inappropriate places or dumping human wastes,

(2) Littering, throwing cigarette butts, the core and shell of fruits and melons, and all kinds of packages;

(3) Dumping or piling construction waste, dirt or other waste, dumping odds and bits, throwaways or throwing odds and bits or waste from buildings or vehicles;

Anyone that violates paragraph (1) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi 100 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (2) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 10 yuan but not more than Renminbi 50 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (3) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter within a definite time limit; anyone that fails to do the cleaning when the period of validity expires, the department concerned shall imposed on him a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi  100 yuan. Where the violator is a unit, it shall be imposed a fine of not less than RMB 500 yuan but not more than RMB 5,000 yuan

这儿也有几点值得注意的地方需要讲一讲。

1. 罚则中“xx至xx”,有人简单地翻译成from xx to xx,似乎显得不那么正式。我们not less than xx —but not more than xx,文字上就比较庄重,严肃。

2. Where的用法也值得注意。表示“如果”的地方,法律文书不用if ,而一般用where 去翻译

3.有些固定词组也值得记忆,比如:impose a fine of xx on somebody;be ordered to do;the period of validity expires;fail to do等等,这儿就不一一详细阐述了。

其实, 在翻译法律文书之前,认真读一下有关法律条文的译文,记住一些关键的表达法,在自己翻译过程中会十分有用的。

以上简要地给大家介绍了法律法规的基本框架,即“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规定与罚则”。掌握了这三部分的基本翻译方法,可以说法律文书翻译就入了门,剩下的就是“修行在个人”了。只要在此基础上,不断实践,不断积累,不断学习,就一定能使自己的翻译水平日长月进,渐臻完美。

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