法律翻译中“汉式英语”的味道能抹去吗?

汉英翻译不同于英汉翻译的是理解汉语,表达英语,这难免要受汉语习惯的影响,在选词、造句中总会有点“汉式英文”的味道。这仿佛是汉译英过程中的通病,但我们在汉英翻译中应尽量避免受汉语思维习惯的影响,要多注意两种语言的差异,使译文准确、流畅。但是翻译法律文书应该以“严谨”为宗旨,如果流畅和准确发生矛盾时,应选择后者。

现举几个不当例子分析如下:

例一:兹证明张三(男,1960年10月3日出生)现在未婚。

英译:This is to certify that Zhang San (male, born on October, 3, 1960) is now unmarried.

分析:在这份公证书中,所证明的事项是张目前的婚姻状况,

所以译成:Zhang San (male, born on October, 3, 1960): present marital status is unmarried.

例二:签订经济合同的通常做法是由有关当事人中的一方提出签订合同的建议,并在合同中明确规定主要条款的具体内容。

英译:The usual way of signing an economic contract is that one of interested parties puts forward his suggestion that a contract be signed and clearly sets forth the specific contents of major provisions in the contract.

分析:此句的主要内容是“签订合同时,通常的做法是提出签订合同的建议,规定合同的内容,因此,先将“签订经济合同”译成状语“in the course of signing an economic contract”,再译“通常的做法是”为 “the usual practice is”,这里的“做法”是指习惯、惯例,因此“way”应改为 “practice”。中间的”由当事人中的一方提出签订合同的建议”应改译成带逻辑主语的不定式结构 “for one of the interested parties to….”,体现出原文的由合同当事人提出“建议”;另外这里的“建议”应改用 propose加名词从句,比 put forward a suggestion显得更严谨些。

所以译成:In the course of signing an economic contract the usual practice is for one of the interested parties to propose that a contract be signed and clearly sets forth the specific contents of major provisions in the contract.

例三:李明在中国居住期间没有受过刑事制裁。

英译:Li Ming has not been punished according to the criminal law during his living in China.

分析:此句中的“not to be punished” 与表示一段时间的during 短语连用不恰当,况且,此句证明的是“没有受过刑罚的记载”,而“触犯刑律”也应译成:“commit an offence against the criminal law”, 所以改译成:“Li Ming has no record of committing offences against the criminal law” 意义更具体明确;另外,“在中国居住期间”应译为“during his residence in China”,“居住”这个词选用 “residence”而不用 “living”,更强调一个住所的永久性和合法性。

例四:本保证书自即日起生效。有效期将于贵恭喜收到全部已经买方承兑和我行背书保证的远期汇票之日终止。

英译:This letter of Guarantee will come into force from this day and will lose its effect when your company has received all the usance drafts accepted by the Buyer and endorsed by our Bank.

分析:法律文书中表示义务或规定时,第三人称后面要用 “shall”不用 “will”. “from this day”不确切,宜改为 “on its issuing draft”。 “will lose its effect”也用得欠妥, “effect”在这里的含义是“效应、结果”;况且此句的关键内容是指“有效期到何时终止”,故应选择 “remain valid until…” 结构;另外“your company” 宜改为“you”。

故后面的这一句应译成: “…shall remain valid until you have received all the usance drafts accepted by the Buyer and endorsed by our Bank”.

例五:本细则的解释权,属于中华人民共和国财政部。

英译:The right of interpretation for the Detailed Rules and Regulations belongs to the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China.

分析:“the right of interpretation for the Detailed Rules and Regulations”不能准确地表达出“解释细则的权利”,应改为 “the right of interpreting the Detailed Rules and Regulations”。

句中谓语动词 “belong to” 也用得欠妥:“belong to” 的含义是“属于…的财产”,这里的“属于”是指“权利、权力等为 ….所有”,故应选用 “reside in ”,如:“决定权属于上级机构”,译为:“The power of decision resides in the higher authorities”.

法律文书汉英翻译涉及的问题很多,在表达时,要对每个经过挑选的英文词、句进行仔细推敲,选择出最确切的表达方式。当然,表达也应该有一个逐步完善的过程,切不可一拿到文件就动笔翻译,这样很难保证译文的质量。译者在翻译时,一定要不厌其烦地勤查专业工具书,对译文一改再改,使其达到严谨、准确、规范。

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