法律英语词汇分类二 一如既往的古旧词汇

当今普通英语的词汇主要来自古代及中世纪时期的英语,但今日大部分的英语词汇的意义与一千多年前、甚至几百年前已经大不相同,用法也大不一样。但是,在如今的法律英语中,许多这类词汇的意义及其用法仍然一如既往、千年不变。试看一下一段合约:

例1. Provided further that this Policy shall be subject to the Conditions herein contained and to any Memoranda endorsed hereon and such Conditions and Memoranda are to be taken as part of the Policy and the observance and performance by the Insured of the times and terms therein contained so far as they relate to anything to be done by the Insured are of the essence of this contract and shall be conditions precedent to any liability on the part of the Insured under this Policy.

上诉合约条款选自一份现代的保险合约,但其中herein, hereon, such以及thereon全是普通英文中废弃的典型的古旧副词,而其他旧式用法还有provided that , subject to 等。以下这些仍然是当代法律英语中常用的古旧副词:

aforesaid, forth with;

here words: hereafter, hereby, herein, hereinafter, hereinbefore, hereof, hereto, heretofore, hereunder, herewith;

let (如在without let or hindrance这个短语中)

said (作形容词使用时)

pursuant to, such, thence, thenceforth;

there words: thereabout, thereafter, thereat, thereby, therefor, therefore, therein, thereon, thereto, theretofore, thereunto (相当于in the document/place referred to), thereunder, thereupon, therewith;

where words: whereas (相当于”given the fact that”), whereat, whereby, whereof;

witness (以签名或宣誓方式作证时用,如In witness whereof, I have set my hand)

witnesseth (意为提供某事的正式证据,在古英语的陈述句中,该词作为第三人称单数的动词)

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