浅析法律翻译中的动词名词化现象

名词化现象在法律文件汉译英中比较普遍,因为名词化能够使句子更简洁和清晰明了。请看下例:

例1. 附加刑的种类如下:The types of supplementary punishments are:

(一)罚金;1. fines

(二)剥削政治权利;2. deprivation of political rights; and

(三)没收财产。3. confiscation of property.

附加刑也可以独立适用。(刑法第34条)Supplementary punishment may also be applied independently.

汉语动词剥夺和没收分别译为英语名词deprivation和confiscation.

例2. 对于犯罪情节轻微不需要判处刑罚的,可以免于刑事处分,但可以根据条件的不同情况,予以训诫或者责令具结悔过、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失、或者主管部门予以行政处分。(刑法第37条)

Where the circumstances of a person’s crime are minor and do not require sentencing for punishment, an exemption from criminal sanctions may be granted him, but he may, according to the different circumstances of each case, be reprimanded or ordered to make a statement of repentance or formal apology, or make compensation for losses, or be subjected to administrative sanctions by the competent department.

上述条款的一个汉语动词被译为英语名词并后接一个介词。换言之,动 – 宾结构变成名词 – 介词 – 名词结构。很多情况下经常介词of, 比如:to confiscate property – confiscation of property; to enact a new tax Law – enactment of a new tax law; to implement the rules and regulations – implementation of the rules and regulations等等。如果动词句型是动 – 宾 – 介, 那么介词的选择取决于原来的动词和介词搭配,比如:

to deprive … of … – deprivation of political rights;

to exempt … from … – exemption from criminal sanctions;

to compensate … for… – compensation for losses 等等。

再继续看下面这个例句,注意英译文中的名词化现象。

例3. 在中国境内设立合营企业,必须经中华人民共和国对外经济贸易部审批。

The establishment of a joint venture in China is subject to examination and approval by the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade of the People’s Republic of China.

例4. 本规定由国家版权局负责解释。

The interpretation of these Provisions shall be the responsibility of the National Copyright Administration of China.

上诉几个例句中的法律条款表明动词名词化常用在法律文件中,因为这能达到客观的效果。虽然法律写作提倡使用“基本的动词”,但是名词化仍然是一种法律写作风格。使用名词化时要注意法律主体和法律主观要件要清晰无误。

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